spartina alterniflora loisel

Similarly, S. alterniflora in the western U.S. was also introduced unintentionally from the eastern U.S. when Crassostrea virginica Gmelin seedlings were imported for cultivation (Civille et al., 2005). 261–284 in Felder, D.L. U. S. A. 25 (1), 95–109. Wetlands 35 (3), 547–556. Genet. The reason was that the number of alleles per marker on each S. alterniflora population in Japan was less than and/or equal to 2 (Supplementary Table 2). Low genetic diversity contrasts with high phenotypic variability in heptaploid Spartina densiflora populations invading the Pacific coast of North America. Proc. The sample collection was carried out following the method in Blum et al. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009743. Evol. (e.g., North Carolina, Georgia, and Florida) for eco-engineering purposes (i.e., reclamation of tideland) (Xu and Zhou, 1985; Wan et al., 2009). doi: 10.2166/aqua.2001.0011, McCauley, D. E., Smith, R. A., Lisenby, J. D., Hsieh, C. (2003). Loisel. ... Daehler, C. C.; Strong, D. R. Variable Reproductive Output Among Clones of Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) Invading San Francisco Bay, California: The Influence of Herbivory, Pollination, and Establishment Site // American Journal of Botany. doi: 10.3354/meps292111, Okoshi, K. (2007). Invasion of the non-indigenous nuisance mussel, Limnoperna fortunei, into water supply facilities in Japan. 35 (4), 444.452. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2008.05.020, Wang, X. Y., Shen, D. W., Jiao, J., Xu, N. N., Yu, S., Zhou, X. F., et al. Xu, H., Qiang, S., Han, Z., Guo, J., Huang, Z., Sun, H., et al. Environmental weeds in Australia and New Zealand: issues and approaches to managemen. ex Elliott) St.-Yves, Candollea 5: 24, 49 (1932) Spartina maritima subvar. (2010). Since the cause of a lower genetic diversity among invasive Spartina species is of great interest, we discuss below the reason why S. alterniflora populations had lower genetic diversity when invading Japan. The threat of invasive alien species to biological diversity: setting a future course. Hubbard . Brown, A. H. D., Marshall, D. R. (1981). Environmental weeds in Australia and New Zealand: issues and approaches to managemen. (Rosaceae) in its native range and in areas of introduction, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Thus, to validate this hypothesis, trade histories were compared between countries/regions where S. alterniflora has grown (the United States, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong) (Blum et al., 2007; Guo et al., 2015; Bernik et al., 2016) and the ports nearest to each studied river in Japan (i.e., Kumamoto Port, Yatsushiro Port, and Mikawa Port) using historical trade data from the 2003 to 2013 in the Global Trade Atlas ( Ecol. Smooth Cord-grass in English Spartine à feuilles alternes in French borraza in Spanish hu hua mi cao in language. Distrib. 94 (3), 197–204. Mol. Elton, C. S. (1958). 10, 484. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00484, Goss-Custard, J. D., Moser, M. E. (1988). Our website has detected that you are using an outdated insecure browser that will prevent you from using the site. Vegetative regeneration of natural Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Annu. (2019). The positive and negative effects of exotic Spartina alterniflora in China. Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Mol. Spartina alterniflora, intentionally or unintentionally introduced worldwide, has adversely impacted local Japanese ecosystems. This study will elucidate whether actual invasion route of S. alterniflora into Japan was derived from the region of origin (i.e., primary introduction) or from a secondary introduction via introduced regions. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/bts460, Piry, S., Luikart, G., Cornuet, J.-M. (1999). Comparison of microsatellite data among S. alterniflora local populations in Japan for estimating the route through which S. alterniflora invaded Japan revealed that genotypes of the populations were clearly different in each river (Figures 3 and 4). Geographic structure, genetic diversity and source tracking of Spartina alterniflora. The datasets generated for this study can be found in the DNA Data Bank of JAPAN (DDJB), accession number: LC565815. in Chinese with English Abstract. Plant Sci. Among these invasive mechanisms, the possibility of S. alterniflora invasion in Japan via intentional introductions is almost impossible, since Japan has no such imports for the reclamation of tidal flats. It has been introduced by humans to wetlands in California, Oregon and … (2013). Lett. Article Effects of Invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel. It hybridizes with S. maritima in Europe, with S. pectinata in Massachusetts, and with S. foliosa in California. Regarding the genetic differences among the individuals, the pairwise co-dominant genotypic distances in each Japanese population were calculated using GenAlEx ver. 6.5 and then evaluated by principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) (Peakall and Smouse, 2012). Lowe, A., Harris, S., Ashton, P. (2004). Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Noxious Weed Information; This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Spartina maritima subsp. doi: 10.1007/s13157-015-0643-5. Such low genetic diversities associated with a founder effect were also found in other Spartina species such as S. versicolor Fabre introduced in Europe (Baumel et al., 2016) and S. densiflora Brongn. doi: 10.1007/s10531-005-2575-5, Zhou, H.-X., Liu, J.-E., Qin, P. (2009). ex Elliott) St.-Yves, Candollea 5: 48 (1932) Spartina maritima var. Ecol. Therefore, ecological knowledge that may lead to urgent control and/or eradication of invasive aquatic plants are imperative to conserve a biological diversity (Koncki and Aronson, 2015). Projects: China, IPCN, New World Grasses, PAPGI Common Names: hu hua mi cao No References available Smooth cordgrass (English, United States) Hitchcock, A. Guo, W., Qiao, S., Wang, Y., Shi, S., Tan, F., Huang, Y. as an ecological replacement. Therefore, further research on the genetic characteristics of the invasive S. alterniflora should be carried out worldwide for estimating its global spread and future invasion risks. An invasive perennial herb, Spartina alterniflora Loisel., was examined via 16S rRNA genetic sequencing analyses, to assess the impacts of plant invasion on soil bacterial communities compared to bare flat and native Suaeda salsa (L.) Pall., Scirpus mariqueter Tang et Wang, and Phragmites australis (Cav.) Eds. (2015). Results of the genetic analysis of Japanese S. alterniflora samples collected using the different markers demonstrated that the number of alleles of S. alterniflora individual stands in each river was less than or equal to 2, except for one sample from the Tsuboi River (Supplementary Table 2). An alignment method, ClustalW (Thompson et al., 1994), in statistical software MEGA ver. Spartina densiflora Brongn. 30 (12), 2725–2729. Synonyms: Mitsch, W. J., Jorgensen, S. A. J. Integr. GenAlEx 6.5: genetic analysis in Excel. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-8286.2003.00556.x, Blum, M. J., Bando, K. J., Katz, M., Strong, D. R. (2007). Biodiversity. All names of the haplotypes obtained in this study were assigned according to the method of Blum et al. The hierarchical spatial distribution of chloroplast DNA polymorphisms across the introduced range of Silene vulgaris. doi: 10.1093/jhered/90.4.502, Prentis, P. J., Sigg, D. P., Raghu, S., Dhileepan, K., Pavasovic, A., Lowe, A. J. 68 (1), 6–9. Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Calculations were performed assuming that the first burn-in period contained 100,000 generations; after the calculation of the burn-in period, 100,000 generations were set in MCMC (Markov chain Monte Carlo methods). Plant Sci. Spartina. BOTTLENECK: a computer program for detecting recent reductions in the effective population size using allele frequency data. Cryptic invasion by a non-native genotype of the common reed, Phragmites australis, into North America. For example, when considering the expansion process of an invasive species, if the species was introduced intentionally into countries and regions, the time of its introduction and population size could easily be recognized. doi: 10.1002/ece3.4063, Chornesky, E. A., Randall, J. M. (2003). 719 1807. Grass family (Poaceae) Download PDF version formatted for print (311 KB) **NOTE: Smooth cordgrass is native to coastal states of eastern and southern U.S. Notes 4 (1), 39–42. 2.3.4 (Pritchard et al., 2000) was used for this analysis. ★ indicates the region estimated as the place that S. alterniflora was initially introduced into China, according to Bernik et al. As a result, S. alterniflora populations of Japan were classified into three groups: 1) Umeda River (Aichi), 2) Shirakawa and Tsuboi Rivers (northern Kumamoto), and 3) Oono River (southern Kumamoto) (Figure 4B). (2009). Universal primers for amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas. Genetic analysis of cpDNA revealed that all S. alterniflora populations in Japan had a single haplotype (haplotype C4) (Figure 2, Table 1). We thank Dr. Francisco Sánchez-Bayo (The University of Sydney), Dr. Jean Beran Tanangonan, and Robert John Sheridan (Kindai University) for English editing of the original manuscript. 8 (4), 436–450. Impacts of invasive Iris pseudacorus L. (yellow flag) establishing in an abandoned urban pond on native semi-wetland vegetation. In Japan, Spartina alterniflora Loisel (smooth cordgrass), a plant native to the Atlantic coast of North America and the Gulf of Mexico, was first detected in 2008 in Aichi Prefecture and in 2009 in Kumamoto Prefecture, followed by identification in multiple rivers and tidal flats in both prefectures (i.e., unintentional introduction) (Tamaoki and Takizaki, 2015). Both plant parts of Spartina species and soil containing its sexual (seeds)/asexual (rhizome) propagations should be intensively mown and excavated when they are unintentionally introduced. doi: 10.1111/mec.15192. Ecol. YM, MT, and DH designed and coordinated the research. Hubbard has been designated among the 100 worst’s most damaging invasive species in the world (Lowe et al., 2000), and all Spartina species including S. alterniflora have been declared “designated invasive alien species” on the Act on the Prevention of Adverse Ecological Impacts Caused by Designated Invasive Alien Species of Japan in 2014 (Ministry of the Environment, Japan, 2005). Here, we studied the effects of invasion and ecological replacement using S. apetala on soil organic carbon fractions and stock on Qi’ao Island. glabra (Muhl. Characterization of microsatellite loci in Spartina species (Poaceae). S. alterniflora, along with other Spartina was initially seen by many coastal engineers as a species that could be used to create natural erosion control barriers.S. (1998b). Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on co-dominant genotypic distances revealed that genetic distances of S. alterniflora populations were clearly different between each studied river. J. For example, Bossdorf et al. The proportions for Axis 1 and Axis 2 were 41.2% and 23.3%, respectively. Manage. ), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. J. Jap. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Ecol. In addition, the genetic characterization of a population is largely associated with the ability of distribution expansion (Lee, 2002). Ecological impacts of invasive alien plants: a meta-analysis of their effects on species, communities and ecosystems. Microsatellite analysis also showed a loss of genetic diversity in Japanese S. alterniflora populations (allelic richness (AR) = 1.20–1.39) compared with that in its native region (AR = 4.58–4.59), suggesting a founder effect on S. alterniflora that might have occurred after invasion of the species into Japan. Preliminary studies of introduced Spartina alterniflora Loisel in China (I). Spartina patens (Ait.)Muhl. (2015). doi: 10.1046/j.1442-9993.2000.01081.x. Ecol. Ecol. Frankham, R., Briscoe, D. A., Ballou, J. D. (2002). Biol. marshhay cordgrass . (2005) indicated that multiple introductions of invasive populations appear to be the rule rather than the exception, while other researchers have reported that the frequency of introductions may greatly contribute to the decrease of genetic diversity in these populations if a highly competitive species has invaded a region rich in genetic diversity, and to the relief from inbreeding depression over the short run (years to decades) (e.g., Frankham et al., 2002; Saltonstall, 2002; Dlugosch and Parker, 2008). Alternate Names . Mol. invading the Pacific coast of the U.S. (Castillo et al., 2018). (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2010.00672.x, Howes, B. L., Teal, J. M. (1994). Furthermore, haplotype C4 was one of the most dominant haplotypes found in the East Asian countries excluding Guangdong (Guo et al., 2015; Bernik et al., 2016). The grass can hinder water circulation and drainage or block boating channels. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01442.x, Koncki, N. G., Aronson, M. F. J. Groups A, B, and D consisting of a single haplotype are shown in dark grey, black and light grey, respectively. Spartina alterniflora Loisel. J. Hered. 2.9.3 (Goudet, 2001). Meadows of S. alterniflora can crowd out native species, reducing biodiversity and altering the environment; as a result of S. alterniflora's growth, invertebrates that live in mud flats disappear as their habitatis overgrown, and in turn, food sources shrink for birds who feed on t… Tests for deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) were also performed using FSTAT ver. Environ. PCR products were purified using NucleoSpin Extract II (Macherey–Nagel, Düren, Germany) and then were used as a template for the cycle sequencing reaction. Then, the genetic variance of S. alterniflora was compared between populations in the region of origin (the eastern U.S.) and those in several introduced regions (the Pacific coast of the U.S. and some East Asian countries). : Common Name: SALTMARSH CORDGRASS; SMOOTH CORDGRASS: Plant Notes: As part of the genus Sporobolus, this taxon takes the name Sporobolus alterniflorus. Spartina alterniflora . Trin. In Kumamoto Prefecture, 20 and 19 S. alterniflora samples were randomly collected from multiple colonies in the Tsuboi River (N 32° 46′, E 130° 37′) facing the Ariake Sea (northern Kumamoto) and the Oono River (N32° 37′, E 130° 39′) facing the Yatsushiro Sea (southern Kumamoto), respectively. Haplotype C2, C3, and C4 of Group C consisting of multiple haplotypes are shown in green, yellow, and pink, respectively, and other C members are shown in blue. Ecol. Fragment analysis was conducted by Macrogen (Seoul, South Korea). J. Hered. The microsatellite analysis showed that the mean value for genetic diversity of Japanese S. alterniflora samples were as follows; the Umeda River (h = 0.34, AR = 1.34 ± 0.22), Tsuboi River (h = 0.24, AR = 1.24 ± 0.24), and Oono River (h = 0.39, AR = 1.39 ± 0.20). Abstract. Uses . Camp (eds. Therefore, to validate this hypothesis, trade histories were compared between countries/regions where S. alterniflora has grown naturally (the United States, the East Asian countries) and Japan (Aichi and Kumamoto Prefectures). Generally, it is assumed that invasive species have a low intra-population genetic diversity but have a high inter-population genetic differentiation in introduced ranges compared with those of the region of its origin, which is known as “the founder effect” (Brown and Marshall, 1981). Bot. Three case studies for control of invasive alien ant species, fire ant (Solenopsis invicta, Formicidae) in Japan. Biol. Invasive cordgrass modifies wetland trophic function. The findings revealed that when compared the amount of trade between the Yatsushiro Port (southern Kumamoto), which includes the Oono River and the U.S. ($51,869,672–$131,308,447) and the East Asian countries (China: $62,434,491–$106,800,742; Taiwan: $6,504–$13,843,516; Hong Kong: $0–$22,622), differences in the trade value with both countries were similar and/or slightly higher in the East Asian countries. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. (2016). This value indicates the rate of genetic loci with polymorphisms compared to all the genetic loci for each local population. The invasion history of invasive species, especially plants, are estimated directly, for example, using published literature, aerial photographs, and herbarium collections in order to determine the date and place of its first record. 189 pp. Plant Sci., 07 September 2020 (1985). Family: Poaceae . Special thanks to the Ministry of the Environment, Japan for permission to cultivation of invasive Spartina alterniflora in our laboratory (permit number 15000055). Lockwood, J. L., Hoopes, M. F., Marchetti, M. P. (2007). Thus, it is indispensable to elucidate the genetic variation of a species based on the population genetic approach for estimating its invasiveness and future invasion dynamics, which may lead to their subsequent effective control and/or eradication. ‘Vermilion’ Smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora Loisel. doi: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61831-8, Hayasaka, D., Nakagawa, M., Maebara, Y., Kurazono, T., Hashimoto, K. (2020). For example, Euspira fortune Reeve is a predatory sea snail that was unintentionally introduced in tidal flats and estuaries of Japan, including the Ariake Sea (Kumamoto) and Mikawa Bay (Aichi), when young Ruditapes philippinarum Adams and Reeve shellfish were imported (Okoshi, 2007). For polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the trnT–trnF region of cpDNA, two primer pairs were used: Tab A (5′-CAT TAC AAA TGC GAT GCT CT-3′) and Tab B (5′-TCT ACC GAT TTC GCC ATA TC-3′) targeting the trnT–trnL region; and Tab C (5′-CGA AAT CGG TAG ACG CTA CG-3′) and Tab F (5′-ATT TGA ACT GGT GAC ACG AG-3′) targeting the trnL–trnF region were used (Taberlet et al., 1991). Genotypic diversity enhances invasive ability of Spartina alterniflora. (2007), who indicated that samples should be collected from colonies that are at least about 2.5 m apart from each other (Supplementary Table 1). Results of the microsatellite analysis made it clear that some S. alterniflora individuals (St. 13, 15, 16, and 18) in the Tsuboi River (northern Kumamoto) had a heterozygous at only one locus, while two individuals growing sympatrically (St. 14 and 17) had a homozygous at all of the loci (Supplementary Table 2). Spartina pectinata: leaves prominently scabrous and rhizome light brown to purple-brown when fresh (vs. S. alterniflora, with leaves smooth or slightly scabrous along apical margins and … (2016). P.M. Peterson & Saarela!Trachynotia alterniflora (Loisel.) Common names are from state and federal lists. Received: 27 April 2020; Accepted: 18 August 2020;Published: 07 September 2020. Genetic and historical evidence disagree on likely sources of the Atlantic amethyst gem clam Gemma gemma (Totten 1834) in California. Gray Sporobolus alterniflorus (Loisel.) Mol. Castillo, J. M., Gallego-Tévar, B., Figueroa, E., Grewell, B. J., Vallet, D., Rousseau, H., et al. Atlantic cordgrass in language.,,,, If you want to use any images ask author for permission. To evaluate the genetic structure in the individuals, analysis with STRUCTURE allocated all individuals to K clusters by Bayesian’s clustering and was conducted to maximize the linkage disequilibrium and Hardy-Weinberg’s disequilibrium. Smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel., abbreviated as S. alterniflora), native to the United States, was initially introduced into China in 1979 for coastal protection and eco-engineering purposes (Liu et al., 2016). 15 (5), 822–830. and the likelihood of cross pollination. Spartina alterniflora is found on muddy banks, usually of the intertidal zone, in eastern North and South America, but it is not known from Central America. (2011). The sequences of trnT–trnF region from chloroplast DNA were identified from all S. alterniflora individuals sampled in both prefectures and regions: the Umeda River (Aichi), the Shirakawa River and Tsuboi River (northern Kumamoto), and Oono River (southern Kumamoto). Among the three regions, trading between the ports of northern Kumamoto and the U.S. was obviously lower than trading with China. To achieve control and/or eradication of invasive S. alterniflora and prevent its future invasion successfully, knowledge about the current status of S. alterniflora in Japan through a population genetic approach is thought indispensable. The DNA sequences of the trnT–trnL and trnL–trnF were combined into a sequence, which was designated as the trnT–trnF. For this purpose, it is essential to continue monitoring areas where S. alterniflora has already invaded. Natl. The authors also wish to thank Moe Nakagawa, Ryu Ikeda, Kota Kohara and Yoshinori Taruma (Kindai University) for helping with S. alterniflora sampling. The PCR amplification were carried out in a total volume of 20 μl, consisting of approximately 10 to 50 ng/μl template DNA (4.0 μl), 10× Buffer (2.0 μl), 2 mM dNTP mixture (2.0 μl), 0.2 μl of each 100 pM primer pair, and 2.5 U/μl of Blend Taq (0.5 μl) (TOYOBO, Osaka, Japan). CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. DOC Research & Development Series 292-42. stands is critical to the stability and sustained productivity of Atlantic tidal salt marshes. This invasive species could easily and rapidly spread to estuarine areas of Japan via vigorous trade and transport, making the prediction of its future invasion necessary. The observed (HO) and expected (HE) values for heterozygosity were calculated using GenAlEx ver. 17 (8), 1881–1887. 292, 111–126. Invasions 18 (5), 1485–1498. According to the cpDNA analysis, S. alterniflora populations in Japan had a single haplotype (haplotype C4) that is the most dominant genotype around the Florida Peninsula, the region of its origin, and is also widely found in the introduced populations in the East Asia. doi: 10.6165/tai.2009.54(2).168. Primary responses to salt stress in a halophyte, smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel.). Ecol. Mol. doi: 10.2980/i1195-6860-12-3-330.1, Davis, H. G., Taylor, C. M., Lambrinos, J. G., Strong, D. R. (2004). doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01628.x, Wan, S., Qin, P., Liu, J., Zhou, H. (2009). Mar. common cordgrass . (2008). Tracking the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile ssp. (1994). Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Helgol. (New York, NY: Wiley & Sons), 255–289. In addition, serious ecological impacts of Spartina species on native aquatic ecosystems through competitive exclusion (Goss-Custard and Moser, 1988; Wan et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2009; Morgan and Systma, 2010) and changes in community and trophic structures (Simenstad and Thom, 1995; Levin et al., 2006; Bortolus et al., 2015) were found due to their expansion. Distrib. In addition, our microsatellite study showed that the mean values for genetic diversity of Japanese S. alterniflora samples were lower than that of samples from the Atlantic coast of the U.S. (h = 0.42 ± 0.08, AR = 4.59 ± 1.24) and the Florida Peninsula (southeast U.S.) (h = 0.41 ± 0.06, AR = 4.58 ± 0.98), the region of its origin (Blum et al., 2007; Bernik et al., 2016), and China (h = 0.47 ± 0.05, AR = 3.52 ± 0.46) (Bernik et al., 2016) and Willapa Bay (h = 0.44 ± 0.25, AR = 4.25 ± 2.61) located in the Pacific coast of the U.S. (Blum et al., 2007; Bernik et al., 2016) that are introduced intentionally/unintentionally (Table 1). Natl. (2009). 8 (10), 4992–5007. DC. YM, TH, AN, and DH collected samples. Taiwania 54 (2), 168–174. Richardson, D. M. (2011). Available at: (Accessed March 18, 2018). Gard. alterniflora (Loisel.) The forward primer was fluorescently labeled with 5′-FAM, TAMRA, and 5′-JOE. Front. Invasion Biology (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press). In addition, the mode shift test suggested that a bottleneck (i.e., shifted mode) would have been formed in these populations in recent years (Table 2). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3180.2007.00559.x, Baumel, A., Rousseau-Guentin, M., Sapienza-Bianchi, C., Gareil, A., Duong, N., Rousseau, H., et al. A TaKaRa PCR Thermal Cycler (TaKaRa BIO, Shiga, Japan) was used for the PCR assay. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294x.2007.03538.x, Earl, D. A., von Holdt, B. M. (2012). Oxygen loss from Spartina alterniflora and its relationship to salt marsh oxygen balance. 6.0 was used for competitive multiple sequence alignment (MSA) (Tamura et al., 2013). doi: 10.1007/s12686-011-9548-7. Spartina alterniflora Loisel. 14 (1), 189–194. Plants growing under good conditions reach 8 feet (2.5 m) tall, while those growing in the high salt marshes, especially at edges of salt pans, may be only 16 inches (40 cm) tall, including … 28 (17), 4012–4027. Eds. Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) has … J. Biogeogr. Genetic variation of Spartina alterniflora intentionally introduced to China. Invasion risk in a warmer world: modeling range expansion and habitat preferences of three nonnative aquatic invasive plants. Therefore, these results reveal that the founder effect might have occurred in Japanese S. alterniflora population. doi: 10.1093/jhered/esg060, Scholz, H., Chen, C.-W., Jung, M.-J. In this study, we predicted the low frequency of S. alterniflora invasion. Nevertheless, it suggests that only one S. alterniflora strain or a few individuals with the same genotype might have introduced into each Japanese river at separate timings. Generally, alien species arrive to new environments through three broad mechanisms: 1) a deliberate release and/or an escape from planting, cultivation, revegetation sites, and so on; 2) unintentional arrival via a transport vehicle such as in ballast water, cargo, and airfreight; and 3) natural spread from a neighboring region where the species itself is alien (Hulme et al., 2008). doi: 10.1007/s10530-016-1096-3, Blum, M. J., Sloop, C. M., Ayres, D. R., Strong, D. R. (2004). Biol. (1991). Eng. doi: 10.2307/3298527. A. Spartina versicolor Fabre: Another case of Spartina trans-Atlantic introduction? 2nd edn (Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing). 14 (7), 702–708. 25 (5), 425–444. doi: 10.1002/j.1537-2197.1981.tb06349.x, Taberlet, P., Gielly, L., Pautou, G., Bouvet, J. FSTAT (version 2.9.3), a program to estimate and test gene diversity and fixation indices (Lausanne, Switzerland: Lausanne University). On the other hand, low g values were found in samples from the Shirakawa River (g = 0.33) and Guangdong province in China (g = 0.32), where almost all analyzed samples had the same genotype. (S. alterniflora) has reduced soil bulk density (BD), the mechanisms that underpin this response are still unclear. The gene diversity (h), allelic richness (AR), and coefficient of inbreeding (FIS), and its confidence intervals were calculated using FSTAT ver. 6.5 (Peakall and Smouse, 2012). The value of g indicates the rate of the individuals with duplicate clones removed in each local population. Ecol. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02636.x, Qiao, H., Liu, W., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Y.-Y., Li, Q. Q. Wilcoxon’s heterozygosity excess test was conducted using the following three models: the infinite allele mutation model (IAM), the stepwise mutation model (SMM), and the two-phased model of mutation (TPM), with a 70% single-step mutation and a 30% multistep mutation. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. (2019). However, the degree of genetic diversity and differentiation of introduced populations obviously varies for each invasion event (e.g., Amsellem et al., 2000; McCauley et al., 2003; Provan et al., 2005). in Japanese with English Abstract. On the other hand, populations of this species in the San Francisco Bay, California, and China, which were introduced intentionally, had a relatively high genetic diversity (Blum et al., 2007; Bernik et al., 2016). Spartina invasion in China: implications for invasive species management and future research. Weed Res. Quick facts. Prog. The genotypes of S. alterniflora populations in Japan were identified using 11 different microsatellite markers (Supplementary Table 2). doi: 10.1007/s10530-016-1128-z, Bernik, B. M., Li, H., Blum, M. J. On the other hand, molecular genetic data including population genetic structure and diversity can provide a great deal of information, such as the origin of the targeted species and the route of its propagation, as well as the process of the range expansion, which indirectly contributes to the elucidation of its invasion history (Lowe et al., 2004; Prentis et al., 2009; Hoos et al., 2010; Lombaert et al., 2010). Therefore, the most likely invasion route may have been the arrival through a transport vehicle (i.e., stowaway) (Hulme et al., 2008). 2.9.3 (Goudet, 2001). Again, values of AR in S. alterniflora populations in Japan were lower than those in the U.S. and China populations, and the formation of a bottleneck was expected in Japanese populations. In addition, the formation of a bottleneck (i.e., shifted mode) was expected by the mode shift test in S. alterniflora population in Japan. B. Proc. doi: 10.1007/s10750-014-2117-9, Hayasaka, D., Fujiwara, S., Uchida, T. (2018). Mol. These facts suggest that S. alterniflora expanding in East Asian countries originates from populations (found) in the southeast U.S., especially around the Florida Peninsula. Genetic Variation of Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Axis 1 and Axis 2 account for 41.2% and 23.3% of the variance, respectively. Accordingly, Spartina anglica C.E. In addition, no S. alterniflora population was found in Japan before 2008 (Tamaoki and Takizaki, 2015).

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